Fascinating Facts: Pears  


Botanical name: Pyrus communis
Origins:  Western China, but found in all temperate regions from western Europe, North Africa and across Asia.

First cultivated:  There is evidence of pears being used as a food source since prehistoric times.  They were widely cultivated by the Romans with over 30 varieties recorded during their reign.

Types: More than 3,000 pear varieties are grown world-wide. For the best flavours and widest use in the kitchen, opt for a firm dessert variety.

Skill level: Beginner to skilled – once established minimal care is required.

Preferred location and conditions: Full sun or shade (depending on variety) on fertile, moisture-retentive, loamy soil with plenty of added organic matter. Avoid shallow soils over chalk. A windbreak should be used on exposed sites during establishement.

Good for containers: Yes – if produced on dwarfing root stocks.
Harvest time: late summer – early autumn.

Possible problems:  Brown rot and pear rust.

Health benefits:  Pear fruits contain good levels of dietary fibre, antioxidants, minerals and vitamin A, C, E and K.  They are low in calories and are considered an extremely safe food source for those with food allergies


Potted history

The pear follows a similar development to that of the apple. The first proper British pear cultivation was implemented by the Romans. Slower to gain popularity, it was not until the mid17th Century that pear breeding caught up with apple development – each having around 60 cultivars in UK production by the 1640s. However there is mention in the Domesday Book (1086) of old pear trees being used as boundary markers .

Less than 200 years later, thanks to further developments of French and Belgian varieties by UK horticulturists (most notably Thomas Andrew Knight early in the 19th century), 622 cultivars were recorded growing in the RHS gardens at Chiswick House, west London.

The Doyenne du Comice pear was introduced to the UK from France in 1858 and together with the Conference pear (1858) quickly became the dominate varieties in UK production.  Conference pears now account for more than 90% of UK commercial production.


Why grow pears

A perfectly ripe pear takes some beating. Bursting with flavour and juice, home grown pears are a highlight of the harvest season – hard, dry supermarket fruits pale in comparison.  Store bought produce centres around just a few common varieties, whereas gardeners have a wide selection of cultivars to choose from for something truly different for the kitchen or fruit bowl. Dwarfing root stocks and the various pruning and training methods mean pears can be grown in almost any garden situation, no matter the available space.

Planting and growing:  Autumn to spring is the best time to plant pears, though container grown trees can be planted at any time of year. Bare-root trees are available in the dormant season and these offer an economical and easy start to pear growing.

For the best fruit production some annual pruning is required, and just as with the more commonly grown apples, this will differ depending on your preferred training method. Again like apples, but even more importantly for pear crops, pears require a pollinating partner. If space is limited, why not encourage a neighbour to plant one too? You can then split your harvests 50/50 for a share of each variety.

Trees should be staked and tied against wind rock and for best fruit production feed each year in late winter/early spring with a high potassium feed. Newly planted trees should also be mulched in spring and autumn for the first three or four years to conserve moisture and reduce competition from weeds and grass.

To browse all the pumpkin varieties we have on offer at Mr Fothergill’s just follow this link to the pears section of our website.

Royal Horticultural Society

This article was first published on the RHS website October 2017. 

Read more on the RHS website about growing your own pears.

 

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